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Wong sir's Trip?：Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, Spain is a genius designer
por Wong sir（Frogwong）
Wong sir's Trip? Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, Spain is a genius designer
The Sagrada Familia and Atonement Temple, generally referred to as the Sagrada Familia, is located in Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia, Spain. Due to the broken funds and war, it has become a Catholic church that has not been completed for more than 100 years.
Construction of the Sagrada Familia began in 1882 because it is a Church of Atonement. The source of funds mainly depends on see more personal donations. The amount of donations directly affects the progress of the project. It is expected to be completed in 2032.
At that time, the 170-meter-high Sagrada Familia will replace the Ulm Church in Germany (161.53 meters) and become the tallest church in Europe and the world.
The Sagrada Familia is the only building in the world that has been declared a World Heritage Site before it has been completed.
The church is not a cathedral. Pope Benedict XVI visited the church on November 7, 2010, and sealed it as a Pontifical temple.
Sagrada Familia designer Gaudi has a famous view: "Straight lines belong to humans, and curves belong to God."
A covered rectangular cloister in the Sagrada Familia surrounds the entire church and connects the three entrances.
There are no right angles inside or outside the church, and few straight lines. All the pillars, door frames, window frames, and corner lines are curved.
A holy basin in the church for washing hands is also designed with a graceful curve like a skirt.
A major feature of Gaudi is that he likes to use Spanish porcelain, glass, enamel, and natural stone, shatter them and reassemble them, and give them a strong sense of visual art through color contrast and exaggerated modeling.
In appearance, the building looks like a huge stone termite nest, a huge vegetable field, a gingerbread house baked by the world's most evil witch, or a creepy forest.
This magnificent building took shape after World War I, and since then its design philosophy has puzzled and puzzled countless architects, critics, and historians.
The church was originally designed by architect Villar. It is a towering and unique building. After Villar resigned, he was publicly recruited and taken over by the unnamed Gaudi at that time.
Gaudi is famous for his Sagrada Familia, and is considered to be Spain's most outstanding architect in the twentieth century. Most of his representative works have been settled in Barcelona. Seven of them have been selected as world cultural heritage, and the Sagrada Familia is a masterpiece.
Religious book dealer Boca Beria was the founder of the Saint Joseph Revered Church, and during its heyday, the number of believers reached 600,000.
Members of the association bought a plot of land measuring 130 meters by 120 meters and generously funded the construction of the Sagrada Familia.
After visiting the Vatican in 1872, Boca Beria returned to Spain from Italy with the intention of building a church.
The church was funded by a religious group and designed by architect Villar. It is a standard-form Gothic Revival building. Construction began on March 19, 1882.
On March 18, 1883, the church was built only as an underground sanctuary. Villar resigned because of broken funds for construction. Gaudi, 31, took over the design work.
Gaudi was born in Reus, a small town not far from Barcelona, in 1852. For generations, he was a blacksmith for a pot. Gaudi worked as a blacksmith, learned woodworking, cast iron, and molding.
In 1873, Gaudi was admitted to the Barcelona School of Architecture, and in 1878 he received a bachelor's degree in architecture.
His graduation project was to design an auditorium for a university, and the plan caused a lot of controversy. When the dean issued him a graduation certificate, he said, "I don't know if we will issue the certificate to a genius or a lunatic. We have to wait for time to prove everything. "
The exterior of the Sagrada Familia has Gothic characteristics, and Gaudi pointed out: "The Gothic frame has no vitality. This structure is like an overwhelming skeleton. It not only fails to connect the various parts of the body in harmony, but instead You need crutches everywhere. "
Gaudi completely readjusted the plan and changed the originally designed Gothic church into a Catalan modernist building.
Gaudí began work in 1883 and was not appointed as an architect until 1884.
The Sagrada Familia was planned from the beginning as a main church-sized building with extremely complex architectural structures and decorations, including two side porches, a semicircular apse with seven sacrifices and a cloister, multiple steeples and In and out facades, each facade has a different structure and decoration.
The shape of the Sagrada Familia is a Latin cross with five aisles, with the central nave's vault as high as 45 meters and the adjacent nave's vault as high as 30 meters. There is a gap on the apse floor to see the basement below.
Forty-three years of Gaudi's life was spent on the design and construction of this church. After 1925, he moved to the church site to live and design the church wholeheartedly.
During the construction process, Gaudí continued to modify the design until the end of his life. His style experienced roughly three stages: the Moorish style of the Orientalism in the early period, the neo-Geum and modernism style in the middle period, and the naturalism in the later period.
Gaudi designed the church based on animal and plant forms, with a strong natural color, showing each scene in the Bible one by one, making the church a Catholic picture book.
The Y-shaped columns of the Sagrada Familia gradually tapered from the bottom up like the old tree roots, and finally turned into branches and trees to reach the zenith, forming a wonderful combination with the zenith pattern, like watching a colorful moment through a kaleidoscope .
With twelve constellations on each branch, Gaudi hopes that anyone can find their faith here.
In addition to the branches that support its load, the changing surface is the result of the intersection of various geometries.
When the pillar rises, it forms an octagonal square base, then a sixteen-sided shape, and finally turns into a circle. This effect is the result of the three-dimensional intersection of the spiral columns.
Gaudi's original design had a total of eighteen spires, from low to high representing the Twelve Apostles, the Virgin Mary, the authors of the four Great Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John) and the highest Jesus Christ.
Eight minarets were completed in 2010, and after all the spires are completed, the Sagrada Familia will become the tallest church building in the world.
Twelve towers representing twelve disciples, ranging from 98.4 meters to 117 meters in height, four towers representing the Gospel authors at 120 meters, towers representing the Virgin Mary at 120 meters, and towers representing Jesus Christ at 170 It's 180 meters below Montjuic in Barcelona, Gaudí believes that his creativity should not exceed that of God.
Representing the authors of the four Gospels of the Bible, the minarets are engraved with statues representing them: winged bull (Luke), angel (Matthew), eagle (John), winged lion (Mark).
The lower minaret is engraved with the host of the communion with wheat sheaf, and the communion cup with grape bunches, representing the communion ceremony.
Gaudi plans to place the tubular bell in a steeple, driven by wind, to transmit sound into the church.
Gaudi conducted a series of acoustic studies in order to obtain the appropriate acoustic results, but only one clock is currently in place.
The church was long and unfinished, and Gaudi said, "My client is not in a hurry."
What he refers to as a customer is "God."
When Gaudi died in 1926, the church was about 15% to 25% complete.
On the afternoon of June 7, 1926, Gaudi completed the work of the day, worshipped from the Sagrada Familia to the church in the city center, and was hit by a tram.
His shirt was worn out, and the driver thought he was a tramp and refused to send him to the city hospital.
A passerby later sent him to the Holy Cross Hospital, and later found that the homeless man was Gaudi. He wanted to send him to a better place for resettlement. Gaudi refused. He said, "This is my place."
Three days later, Gaudi died.
All the people in Barcelona were empty, and the whole city came out to mourn him.
After Gaudi's death, construction work continued under the guidance of designer Grasse. It was interrupted by the Spanish Civil War in 1936, and construction began again in 1954.
During the war, the Sagrada Familia was looted by Catalan anarchists, destroying part of the unfinished cathedral and Gaudi's models and workshops. Most of Gaudi's authenticity was damaged, but Gaudi's tomb was intact.
Although the anarchists hated General Franco and the Catholic Church, they knew very well that Gaudi was a saint.
The Sagrada Familia has three magnificent facades: the birth facade in the east, the crucifixion facade in the west, and the glorious facade in the south.
The birth façade was built before the interruption of construction work in 1935. The façade is entitled the birth of Christ. The sculpture on the wall shows the story of the birth of virgin Mary to the growth of Christ, because it welcomes the celebration of Christ's birth..
The crucifixion was named after the death of Christ. According to Gaudí's design in 1917, construction began in 1954 and was completed in 1976.
The facade includes Jesus Christ who was whipped, Jesus Christ on the cross. It attracted attention with its simple, sloppy, tortured characters. To express suffering, it designed modern angular and angular lines, which resembled nerves that were strained by pain With ribs.
The sixteen sudokus on the crucifix facade, whether horizontally, vertically, or obliquely, add up to thirty-three, representing the age of Jesus' death.
The glorious façade, which began construction in 2002, is the largest and most memorable of the three façades, representing Jesus Christ's ascension.
Describe a series of scenes such as hell, purgatory, and other elements, including the Seven Deadly Sins and the Seven Virtues.
The four towers on the glorious facade are all hollowed out. The light can fully fall through the colored windows of the church. The stained glass is arranged strictly according to progressive colors, and the lighter it is, the more it goes up.
In 2013, the architect Olle was the fourth-generation person in charge. Three facades have been constructed: the "nativity facade", the "crucifixion facade", and the "honor facade".
Eighteen towers have been built with four clock towers on the "nativity facade", four clock towers on the "crucifixion", and ten towers owed, of which six towers have not yet started construction, and the entire building is almost half completed.
Computer-aided design technology is used to accelerate construction. Current technology allows stone to be processed in CNC machine tools. In the 20th century, stone was carved by hand.
On July 24, 1969, the Sagrada Familia was registered as a Spanish cultural property under the name "Holy Family Atonement Hall".
In mid-2010, the nave of the Sagrada Familia was capped, and an organ was installed on the altar. This unfinished church can begin religious activities.
To overcome the unique acoustic challenges posed by the church's architecture and huge size, the church has several additional organs installed at different locations, which can be played independently or simultaneously.
Pope Benedict XVI ordained the Sagrada Familia in front of 6,500 worshippers on November 7, 2010.
Outside the church, more than 50,000 people attended the orthodox mass, and more than a hundred bishops and three hundred priests attended the sacrament.
On April 19, 2011, an arsonist set fire to the sacrifice collection. Tourists and construction workers were to evacuate. The sacrifice collection was damaged. The fire was brought under control 45 minutes later.
Beginning in 2013, Spanish high-speed rail trains travel through an underground tunnel next to the Sagrada Familia in central Barcelona.
In October 2015, 70% of the construction was completed, entering the final stage, that is, raising six huge spires.
Beginning July 9, 2017, the Sagrada Familia will hold an international mass ritual (until the church is full) on Sunday or 9 AM, and the Mass will occasionally be celebrated at other times, only to be invited to attend.
On June 7, 2019, the Sagrada Familia was granted a legal construction permit by the Barcelona City Council, and construction began in 1882, 137 years later.
The minaret and most of the church structure will be completed in 2026, the centennial of Gaudi's death, and the decorative elements will be completed in 2030 or 2032.
Gaudi saw the Sagrada Familia as a "Gothic ancient Greek temple" in the Mediterranean. He was once called "Dante in the history of architecture."
The construction of the Sagrada Familia is protracted. The main reason is that there is no special funding for the construction cost, all of which come from ticket income and donations.
At the end of Gaudi's lifetime, he also had to raise funds for the Sagrada Familia project. Some relatives and friends later turned away when they saw him.
He donated all his property to the Sagrada Familia before his death. In 1998, Gaudi was sealed as a saint by the Cardinal.
The Sagrada Familia has a budget of 25 million euros per year. Currently, the largest funder of the Sagrada Familia is from Japan. Through sponsorship projects, a large number of young Japanese architects are sent for internships.
Visitor admission is 15-20 Euros
Address: Carrer de Mallorca, 401, Barcelona
Transportation: Subway Lines 2 and 5 and get off at Shengjiatang Station
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1984 (edición definitiva avalada por The Orwell Estate)
por George Orwell
«No creo que la sociedad que he descrito en 1984 necesariamente llegue a ser una realidad, pero sí creo que puede llegar a existir algo parecido», escribía Orwell después de publicar su novela. Corría el año 1948, y la realidad se ha encargado de convertir esa pieza -entonces de ciencia ficción- en un manifiesto de la realidad. En el año 1984 Londres es una ciudad lúgubre en la que la Policía del Pensamiento controla de forma asfixiante la vida de los ciudadanos. Winston Smith es un see more
peón de este engranaje perverso y su cometido es reescribir la historia para adaptarla a lo que el Partido considera la versión oficial de los hechos. Hasta que decide replantearse la verdad del sistema que los gobierna y somete.
La presente edición, avalada por The Orwell Estate, sigue fielmente el texto definitivo de las obras completas del autor, fijado por el profesor Peter Davison. Incluye un epílogo del novelista Thomas Pynchon, que aporta al análisis del libro su personal visión de los totalitarismos y la paranoia en el mundo moderno. Miguel Temprano García firma la soberbia traducción, que es la más reciente de la obra.
La crítica ha dicho...
«Aquí ya no estamos solo ante lo que habitualmente reconocemos como "literatura" e identificamos con la buena escritura. Aquí estamos, repito, ante energía visionaria. Y no todas las visiones se refieren al futuro, o al Más Allá.»
«1984 está entre mis libros favoritos, lo leo una y otra vez.»
«No es difícil pensar que Orwell, en 1984, estuviera imaginando un futuro para la generación de su hijo, un mundo del que deseaba prevenirle.»
«La libertad es una obligación tan dolorosa que siempre habrá quien prefiera rendirse. La virtud de libros como 1984 es su capacidad para recordarnos que la libertad de los seres humanos responsables no es igual a la de los animales.»
«Desde El proceso de Kafka ninguna obra fantástica ha alcanzado el horror lógico de 1984.»
«Un libro magnífico y profundamente interesante.»
«Orwell desarrolló la prosa inglesa más clara y atractiva del siglo XX. Pero es obvio que era mucho más que un gran escritor. Hoy resulta necesario debido a su pasión por la verdad.»
The Sunday Times
«Casi antes que nadie él comprendió que la corrupción de las palabras es un síntoma y a la vez la causa de la corrupción del pensamiento.»
Antonio Muñoz Molina
«Un intelectual radicalmente independiente cuya obra es de una claridad moral insobornable.»
Guillermo Altares, El País
«Probablemente el más influyente escritor occidental del siglo XX. [...] El verdadero Orwell, quienquiera que sea, sigue tomando forma.»
«Orwell fue la fuerza moral de su época.»
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Homo Deus: Breve historia del mañana
por Yuval Noah Harari
Tras el éxito de Sapiens, Yuval Noah Harari vuelve su mirada al futuro para ver hacia dónde nos dirigimos. Bestseller del New York Times con 1 millón de ejemplares vendidos
Yuval Noah Harari, autor de Sapiens, un fenómeno internacional unánimemente aclamado por la crítica, regresa con una secuela igualmente original, convincente y provocadora, centrando su atención en el futuro de la humanidad y en nuestra obsesión por convertirnos en dioses.
A lo largo del último siglo, la see more humanidad ha logrado lo imposible frenando la hambruna, la peste y la guerra. Por primera vez en la historia, más personas mueren por obesidad que por pasar hambre y hay más probabilidades de quitarse la vida que de morir en un conflicto bélico o un atentado terrorista.
¿Qué pasará con la democracia cuando Google y Facebook lleguen a conocer nuestros gustos y preferencias políticas mejor que nos conocemos a nosotros mismos? ¿Qué pasará con el estado de bienestar cuando la inteligencia artificial expulse a los individuos del mercado laboral, creando una «clase innecesaria» de humanos? ¿Cómo podremos lidiar con los avances en ingeniería genética? ¿Terminará Silicon Valley por establecer nuevas religiones en lugar de enfocarse a producir únicamente dispositivos inteligentes?
Homo Deus explora los proyectos, los sueños y las pesadillas que configurarán el siglo XXI: desde superar la muerte hasta la creación de la inteligencia y la vida artificial.
¿Hacia dónde nos dirigimos? ¿Cómo protegeremos al mundo de nuestros propios poderes destructivos? He aquí una mirada hacia el futuro de la evolución. He aquí Homo Deus.
«Yuval Noah Harari, autor del fenómeno Sapiens, reflexiona sobre el futuro de la humanidad en Homo Deus, un libro de prosa inteligente, fresca y libre de prejuicios.»
Jorge Wagensberg, Babelia
«Aún más legible, incluso más importante que su excelente Sapiens.»
Kazuo Ishiguro, Premio Nobel de Literatura
«Homo Deus te impactará y te cautivará, pero sobre todo te hará pensar como nunca antes.»
Daniel Kahneman, Premio Nobel de Economía
«Harari se convierte en una especie de filósofo del futuro que desarrolla las intuiciones de su primera obra [...] un ritmo y una energía que convierten Homo Deus en un libro francamente ameno.»
«El épico y mundialmente celebrado Sapiens recibe la secuela que necesitaba: una intensa y compulsiva investigación sobre el apocalipsis de la humanidad en un futuro impulsado por la tecnología.»
«Un libro implacable y fascinante que seguramente se convertirá, y merece ser un éxito de ventas.»
«Un estimulante libro que lleva al lector a profundizar sobre cuestiones de identidad, conciencia e inteligencia.»
«Un brebaje embriagador de ciencia, filosofía y futurismo.»
Mail on Sunday
«Un estudio brillante, original, estimulante e importante sobre hacia dónde se dirige la humanidad.»
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Humillación en las redes
por Jon Ronson
Un viaje a través del mundo del escarnio público por Jon Ronson, el autor de ¿Es usted un psicópata? Durante los últimos tres años Jon Ronson no ha parado de viajar para reunirse con personas que se han visto expuestas al escarnio público. Los humillados son personas como cualquiera de nosotros que un día, a través de las redes sociales, hicieron un comentario desafortunado o un chiste que resultó malinterpretado. Una vez que su pifia sale a la luz, la indignación general, en esas see more
mismas redes sociales, cae sobre ellas con la violencia de un huracán y, en menos que canta un gallo, una turba enfurecida las destroza, se mofa de ellas y las demoniza hasta hacerles perder el trabajo y cambiar por completo sus vidas.
El escarnio público ha renacido y recorre el mundo. La justicia ha sido democratizada. La minoría silenciosa empieza a manifestarse en voz alta, pero ¿qué dice todo ello de nosotros? Destacamos los defectos de los demás de manera implacable, definimos los límites de la normalidad echando a perder las vidas de aquellos que no se ciñen a las reglas.
Estamos usando el escarnio (y la vergüenza) como una suerte de control social.
«Un libro magnífico, rebosante de argumentos sutiles, a menudo dolorosamente cómico y sin embargo profundamente serio# Altamente recomendable.»
The Daily Mail
«Una obra periodística excelente y original que reflexiona sobre la compleja relación entre quienes humillan y quienes son humillados, ambos foco potencial de los juicios grotescos y desproporcionados de las redes sociales.»
«Ronson es un periodista tenaz y a menudo valiente, cuyo agudo sentido del humor nunca resta un ápice de integridad a sus artículos periodísticos.»
«Escalofriante y a veces hilarante. La típica actitud relajada de Ronson es una delicia.»
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